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Jasmine is a popular ornamental plant among the gardeners that can be grown in pots, hanging baskets, or even directly in the ground. While it’s naturally a vine that’s grown outdoors, some varieties can also be grown indoor houseplants.
In this article, we’ll take a look at everything you need to know about different types of jasmine plants and how you can grow them in your very own garden.
About Jasmine Plants
Jasmine (Jasminum) is both a deciduous and an evergreen shrub depending on the specific genus and where it’s grown. There are more than 200 species of jasmine around the world and most are native to tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Europe, Australia, New Zealand and Oceania. These plants are known for their beautiful blossoms that give off a lovely, sweet scent. However, not all jasmine plants bear sweet-scented flowers.
Although most of the jasmine flowers are star-shaped and white in colour, there are some species that produce different shaped blooms in other colours including pink, yellow, purple and bicolour. The plant leaves are typically oval or heart-shaped and have a bright green hue. They’re best grown in USDA zones 6-11.
Types of Jasmine
Here are some of the most popular types of jasmine that you can find worldwide, categorised according to their distinctive features of shape, colour, and fragrance.
1. White Jasmine (Jasminum officinale)
While these are indigenous to Caucasus and most of the Asian regions, they’re currently grown and naturalized in other countries as well.
White jasmines are known by many other names including ‘summer jasmine’, ‘poet’s jasmine’, ‘true jasmine’and ‘jessamine’. They’re valued by plant lovers for their pure white blooms and enchanting fragrance. The common jasmine is also the national flower of Pakistan.
2. Royal Jasmine (Jasminum grandiflorum)
The royal jasmine produces the largest flowers from the others of its species and is native to South Asia, East and Northeast Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and some areas of China. It has shiny green leaves while the flowers are white with five petals. Due to their lovely scent, these are often used in numerous perfume products in the industry.
3. Winter Jasmine (Jasminum nudiflorum)
Unlike most other types of jasmine, these produce yellow or white-colored, six-petaled flowers in late winter, while the others enter a state of dormancy. The plant has dark green leaves and is native to many provinces of China.
Winter jasmines naturally grow in fields, next to trees and are best planted next to fringed walls that will provide them with support, extra shelter, and warmth throughout the winter season.
4. Dwarf Jasmine (Jasminum parkeri)
These small evergreen shrubs have bright yellow, aromatic flowers which are often used in bouquets and various flower arrangements. Dwarf jasmines bloom in late spring and have small oval leaves. They’re known as a highly endemic plant and can be found in the District of Himachal Pradesh in India. Due to their small structure, dwarf jasmines are ideal for planting in containers and can be cut into topiaries.
5. Arabic Jasmine (Jasminum sambac)
Native to Southeast Asia, Arabic jasmine can be grown as vines and shrubs. It’s the national flower of the Philippines and also one of the three national flowers in Indonesia. The flowers bloom in clusters and are a beautiful shade of pale pink. These flowers have a strong scent similar to vanilla, making them unique and different from other species of jasmine.
6. Italian Jasmine (Jasminum humile)
These plants, also known as yellow jasmine, have small, trumpet-shaped yellow flowers that look eye-catching with their shiny green leaves. Italian jasmine can attract various pollinators such as butterflies, hummingbirds, and bees. Though various parts of these plants, such as roots, flowers and sap are often used for different medicinal purposes, it can cause severe allergic reactions and even be toxic if ingested in high doses.
7. Pink Jasmine (Jasminum polyanthum)
These evergreen climbers produce clusters of white and pink fragrant flowers. These plants are native to China and Myanmar regions and are known as low-maintenance houseplants.
Their foliage has 2 shades of green: dark on the upper part and lighter on the underside. In best growing conditions, Pink jasmine generates many flowers, filling the surrounding atmosphere with their lovely scent.
8. Coral Jasmine (Nyctanthes arborists)
Known as the “tree of sorrow”, Coral jasmine produces beautiful, white flowers with an orange centre that emit a soothing and enchanting fragrance. Their flowers only open at night and never bloom during the day. When fully grown, these are huge plants that can reach the height of a house.
‘False’ Jasmine Plants
There are a number of other flowering plants that are mistakenly called “Jasmine”, since they’re quite similar to the real jasmine plant. These plants include the cape jasmine, star jasmine. and night-blooming jasmine.
These false jasmine plants are so much like the real jasmine that they’re often mistaken for it. Most of them also produce scented flowers and are found in gardens worldwide. However, they belong to an entirely different species.
Planting and Propagation
Contrary to popular belief, jasmine plants are not difficult to propagate. There are several methods to do this including the following:
- Tissue culture
However, the most common and the easiest ways to propagate jasmine are through the cuttings and seeds. From early or late summer is the best time to start the propagation process.
Propagating from Seeds
First, soak the seeds in the water for at least 24 hours before planting. Then, plant them in moist, well-drained soil and after covering the pots with plastic to retain the moisture, place them in sunny area. Finally, re-pot the plants when the seedlings start to sprout.
Propagating from Cuttings
When taking cutting, the most important thing you need to do is to choose a healthy jasmine plant. Then make cuttings about 6 inches (15 cm) in length from the stem tips of that plant. Remember to make each cut just below a leaf and also to remove any leftover leaves from the bottom parts of those cuttings.
Plant the cuttings in containers filled with wet sand and cover them with plastic bags. For better results you can dip your cuttings in some hormone powder (it will help stimulate root growth) before the planting is done.
Place the plants somewhere with a temperature of 75 Fahrenheit (24 C), until the roots are developed properly which should take about a month. Then re-pot them in rich, well-drained soil before moving them outdoors.
Factors to Consider
When planting jasmine plants, it’s important to take several factors into consideration. These include the type of soil you plant them in, how much sunlight they’re exposed to, and what you plant to do to avoid pests and diseases. Here’s a look at what you need to know:
The best soil for jasmine plants is porous soil with high drainage and rich in nutrients and humus. When planting them in containers, large containers with a good drainage are the ideal choice. The soil you choose should have a low acidity level and high permeability.
If the soil you have available isn’t good enough, you can always make it better by adding some peat, or clay. This will increase its quality.
Jasmines are water thirsty plants that need to be frequent watering, especially in the blooming season. If you’re using tap water with chlorine in it, fill a bucket or barrel with the water and allow it to stand for at least 24 hours. This will give the chlorine time to evaporate, making it safe for the plants.
You can also use rainwater for watering your jasmines. Try using lukewarm water instead of cold water, as it will prevent the plants from wilting. During the summer, water the plant at least twice a day, once in the morning and once in the evening.
Jasmines don’t need to be watered quite as much during the winter since they remain dormant during the season. Therefore, watering your jasmines only when the soil surface is dry would be sufficient in the winter.
Light and Temperature
The light and temperature requirements of jasmine plants can differ slightly based on their genus, as well as where and how they’ve gone. However, in normal weather conditions they need a bright environment with high air circulation and a temperature between 15- 25 degrees Celsius.
Jasmines that have grown in outdoor gardens from the start are somewhat resistant to full sun in the daytime. However, the plants that are kept indoors or on balconies should be kept away from direct sunlight to prevent them from getting burnt. In the blooming season, providing them with some shade can help protect the flowers.
The best time to start fertilizing your jasmines is the spring or late winter as this will prepare them for blooming and new growth season. If the plants are already in a rich environment, simply adding a layer of organic compost twice a year is more than enough.
For plants that need additional feeding, use a slow-releasing granular or liquid fertilizer that includes phosphorus as it will boost flowering. Adding a layer of mulch can also help keep your plants healthy.
Pests and Diseases
Like any plant, jasmine is extremely prone to attracting pests and diseases. Here are some of the most common pests that could attack your plants:
- Gallery worms
- Leaf rollers
- Tingid bug
- Jasmine bug
If your jasmine plants are being attacked by pests, look for damaged, distorted, and spotted leaves and flowers. Plants that look wilted or droopy can also be affected. In the early stages, you can control the infestation by handpicking most of these insects. However, if the infestation has spread to the point where it’s out of control, use a stream of lukewarm water to wash away all the pests. Then, spray the plants with neem oil or any other approved pesticide.
Some common infections and diseases your plants can get include:
- Leaf blight
- Root rot
Most of the time, these infections and diseases are caused by excessive watering, nutrition disorders, and poor ventilation. Therefore, providing your jasmine plants with the best care can prevent this beforehand.
The common symptoms include dryness and leaf fall, jaundiced, lethargic plants, yellowing of leaves, wilting of the plant, reduced growth and the lack of flowering. To treat these, remove and destroy all the infected plants or parts first. Then, spray the healthy plants with a fungicide that contains copper or sulphur. These will help protect the plants from further infection.
Benefits of Jasmine
- The scent of jasmine is known to have a comforting and soothing effect.
- Jasmine oil is known as the “king of oils” and is used to help with insomnia, reduce anxiety and depression. By using it in autumn and winter, you can reduce the risk of catching a cold.
- Due to its fat-burning properties, jasmine tea is believed to help with weight loss.
- In ancient times, jasmine was used to disinfect and reduce wound inflammation.
Jasmines are wonderful flowering plants that can give your garden or home a lovely and lively touch with their beautiful blossoms and exotic fragrance. You’ll also find they’re very easy to grow and you don’t even need to be a gardening expert for this. If you’re planning to start growing your very own jasmine plants, just follow the simple tips and you’re on your way.